如果您使用参考对象作为通信的方式,请考虑特定对象对使用的对象如何有意义。

  • Often, we choose items because they have multisensory properties, such as scented soap to signify washing or a pair of riding gloves that smell of the horse to signify riding. An object may have a link to an activity, like a piece of seat belt/buckle to signify a trip in the car.
  • The object of reference must be relevant to the individual – two different people may have different objects of reference for the same toy or activity.
  • Avoid objects made of a material the person dislikes.
  • A child can build up a mental picture of an object of reference if they can handle it.
  • 您可以使用对象的微型版本,但是请注意,与与之交流的人相比,这种选择可能对您的利益更大。如果他们有视力障碍,那么玩具汽车几乎没有类似于上车的经历 - 他们看不到玩具车是真正的汽车的小版本。它感觉不像一个,听起来像一个,闻起来像一个,也不像一个人产生骑行的感觉。

VOCAS(语音输出通信辅助工具)具有多种形状和大小,具有不同的合成声音,并且可能具有记录语音的能力。

Different kinds of VOCAs

Some VOCAs use paper or plastic sheets that have sets of words or symbols that represent recorded words or messages. These sets of words or symbols are static – they do not change. Other VOCAs display words or symbols on a computer-like screen. These displays are dynamic – they change according to what the AAC speaker selects. For example, if they select the “food” symbol, the display may change to a set of symbols of different things to eat.

Selecting a VOCA

接触your local or regional AAC assessment service to find out more about using a VOCA. The service should be able to show you a range of equipment to try out as part of the assessment. Some centres lend equipment for up to three months to try out. They may charge a courier fee for this. Suppliers of communication aid equipment will often lend equipment as well.

这是一些东西考虑when choosing the most suitable VOCA for an AAC speaker:

  • Will the AAC speaker walk and hold the device, or should it be mounted on their wheelchair?
  • 他们将如何操作设备:通过使用开关,替代鼠标或眼睛凝视或头部运动触摸屏幕?您的本地AAC评估服务可以为AAC扬声器提供最合适的访问方式。
  • 他们会使用拼写还是符号?如果符号,他们已经在使用哪些?他们是否能够在VOCA上具有相同的符号,还是必须使用不同但相似的集合?
  • AAC扬声器需要什么词汇?他们目前的水平是多少?如果他们年轻,您将需要考虑他们的词汇在未来三到五年内如何扩展。基于计算机的VOCA提供广泛的预编程词汇。

单一消息VOCAS

A very basic device with a switch that speaks a recorded message when pressed. You can record a new message over the old; for example, Mum can record a message for the child to take to school, and they can bring home a message recorded by a teacher.

These devices help an AAC user to participate. You can also use them to label items around the house or classroom, provide a talking lunch menu or introduce the user to speech output.

小麦克

私人说话者

消息音序器VOCAS

A message sequencer allows the user to have a series of messages. Each time they press the switch, the device speaks the next message in the sequence.

Some devices, such as the one shown here, enable messages to be spoken in random order.

Example:

Randomizer

覆盖VOCAS

您可以购买使用基于纸张的叠加层的各种设备,范围从2到128个钥匙。您将覆盖层放在钥匙上,上面有图片,符号或单词,以显示哪个消息将说出哪个消息。

Some overlay devices have several levels with different messages on each so they can be used in different situations with no need to re-record. The speaker may want to use different levels – for example for work, respite, going out, going to the pub, or shopping. Different levels are also useful when other people may use the device. You make a separate overlay for each level.

Some devices allow the AAC speaker to change levels, but it may be difficult for some to manage this.

Examples:

伴侣四加


Go Talk 9+

Tech/Speak 32

动态屏幕VOCAS

动态屏幕设备在屏幕上显示符号或图形,可以存储多个“页面”。AAC扬声器可以通过选择适当的键在页面之间导航。

您可以设置设备在很多不同的方式。For example, you could choose between one and 72 keys per page, or you could link pages together in simple or multi-branching ways. You could also programme the device to automatically open or close a page when the AAC speaker selects a particular vocabulary item.

On the dynamic screen devices illustrated below, the user can change which page to display. A page may contain any combination of symbols, pictures, words and phrases. These devices are equally suitable for someone who is highly literate and someone who doesn’t have reading and spelling skills. Some devices offer additional features such as SMS, playing music, viewing photographs, Skype, internet access and email.

Dynamic display devices cost several thousand pounds. They run on internal batteries that need to be charged overnight, every night, so they have enough power to be used for the whole of the next day.

Before purchasing any equipment it is important to assess an AAC speaker’s skills and needs carefully. But an assessment is essential if they will use equipment that is more complex than digitised VOCAs with paper displays.

Examples:

Tellus Mobi

Vantage Lite

使用签名进行交流

语言使用单词来表示含义,以便人们可以彼此交流他们的思想。我们还使用肢体语言和手势进行交流。

  • 身体语言,暗示

    例如,表示我们站立,坐或定位武器的方式。它通常是无意识的,但它可以为我们使用的单词增加很多重要含义。

  • 手势

    is a form of body language where we deliberately use movements to convey a specific message. Examples include nodding our head, beckoning, pointing, rolling our eyes, or wrinkling our nose.

当我们发现很难用言语理解自己的情况时,我们倾向于更多地使用手势。例如,这可能是一家嘈杂的酒吧,或者如果我们在一个不说语言的国家。对于发现很难交流的人来说,非语言的肢体语言和手势可能是他们表达自己的唯一途径。

We speak or write words, but we can also express words by gesturing or signing. British Sign Language, for example, is widely used by deaf communities in the UK. People who cannot speak may use signing to express their thoughts. We can also use signing as a visual prop to help someone who has difficulty understanding what is said to them. Signing, like speaking, needs no equipment – it is a very spontaneous, portable and reliable form of communication. The main difficulty with signing and gesture systems is that you need to know the system to understand what the signer is saying.

使用AAC扬声器,我们建议在签名旁边使用语音。许多使用签名作为交流方式的一部分的人至少可以听到一些对他们所说的话。签名有助于他们了解所说的话,而不是替换演讲。签名可以在对话中对两个沟通伙伴都有好处。

Signing systems currently used in the UK

马卡顿

马卡顿is designed to support spoken language. Signing is used with speech and in the same order as the spoken word. The signs are based on British Sign Language. Makaton was originally designed to help people with learning disabilities to understand spoken language and to provide a means of basic self-expression. However, a wide range of people with complex communication needs now use Makaton. Makaton is also a symbol system.
马卡顿慈善机构|电子邮件:info@makaton.org| Website:www.makaton.org

信号

This sign-supported system helps children and adults with communication difficulties, mostly linked to learning disabilities or autism. Signing is used alongside spoken English, following English word order, and provides support for everyday communication. Signalong signs are based on British Sign Language.
信号| Email:info@signalong.org.uk| Website:www.signalong.org.uk

Paget Gorman Signed Speech

This teaches English language and literacy to children who are deaf or have a specific language disorder. It is used alongside spoken English. Signers use every component of a spoken communication, in the exact same word order.
Paget Gorman | Website:www.pagetgorman.org

Amer-Ind

This set of signs is based on the hand shapes used by native Americans to communicate with other tribes, all speaking different languages. Amer-Ind signs need a little more guesswork than signs from natural sign languages used by deaf communities. The system uses key words only, and does not follow the word order of any spoken language. Adults with acquired difficulties find it particularly useful as an AAC system.
See also: Amer-Ind Gestural Code: Based on Universal American Indian Hand Talk; Reference: Skelly, M. et al 1974: ‘American Indian sign (Amer-Ind) as a facilitator of verbalization in the oral apraxic’, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 39, 445-456

手指拼写 /手册字母

这使用手位置来表示字母。聋人社区中的人们使用双手形式。聋人和部分视力的人可能会使用单手版本。偏瘫的人(单方面瘫痪)也可以使用单手版本。

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英国聋人协会|网站:www.bda.org.uk

听力损失的行动|电话:0808 808 0123 |文字电话:0808 808 9000 |电子邮件:informationline@hearingloss.org.uk

CHOOSING A VOCABULARY

When you speak, your words represent symbols for what you mean. For instance, if you saydog透明,您的意思是吠叫的动物,吠叫,有四个腿和尾巴。

对于使用AAC系统的人,可以通过以下方式传达“狗”

  • signing(e.g. by patting your leg)
  • 拼写在键盘上删除字母D,O,G
  • aphotograph
  • 特别symbolfor a dog
  • 一个目的指示狗,例如狗的铅

如果AAC扬声器能够拼写,那么他们可以阐明自己想说的一切,就像能够自然说话的人一样可以说出他们想要的东西。但是,无法拼写的AAC扬声器必须依靠其AAC系统词汇来确定他们可以说些什么。为某人选择词汇非常困难。但是这里有一些关于从哪里开始的想法。

有效的词汇

Imagine that from now on you can talk as much as you like, but you can only use the same 100 words. To communicate effectively those 100 words must enable you to talk with the widest range of people, about the widest range of topics – both now and in the future. It is difficult to think which words you are most likely to need – but if you were designing an AAC system for someone who cannot talk, you would have to consider such things.

词汇应该是个性化,反映您的个性,年龄,文化和性别。

And you want it to be灵活的,例如以帮助您的话:

  • 开始,结束和控制对话

    • “Can I ask you a question?”
    • “好,我现在要去。”
    • “我想和你谈谈……”
  • Say what you want, what you need, and how you feel

    • “我想/不想现在看电视。”
    • “I need to go to the bathroom.”
    • “I’m feeling a bit fed up just now.”
  • Clear up misunderstandings

    • “这不是我的意思,我会以另一种方式说出来。”
  • Say things that you have never said before in your life

    • “你愿意嫁给我吗?”
  • Talk about your interests

    • “那张照片具有很好的景深。”
  • 问问题

    • “你在度假时做了什么?”
  • Make positive and negative comments

    • “我真的很喜欢。”
    • “I think that class is boring.”
  • Say things angrily, politely, cheekily

    • “When are you going to make that cup of tea – I asked you 10 minutes ago!”
    • “请我喝杯茶吗?”
    • “在您渴望喝一杯茶之前,我会死于渴求!”
  • 说笑话

    • “敲门,敲门。谁在那儿?…”

Which words?

我们的个人词汇由日常单词,个人单词和特殊单词的混合组成:

  • 每天每天出现的日常单词

    研究表明,100个日常单词占我们所说的一切的60%。

  • 个人单词有些不寻常,但仍然使用了很多

    Words that are important to a person include the names of places, people and activities. If you were an AAC speaker, you’d want to be involved in the choice of these words.

  • 特殊主题和情况的特殊词语

    These might be jokes, compliments and insults, specific interests, words about a job, hobby or school work, event words for a holiday or sports day, for example. These words will need updating regularly: If you go on holiday, you want to be able to talk about it before you go, while you’re there and for a while afterwards. But you probably don’t want to be stuck talking about the same holiday two years later! And if you’re an adult, you don’t want to be stuck with the special words you used as a child.

Who chooses the vocabulary?

If you are the AAC speaker, you should have some input in choosing your vocabulary. People who know you well – your family, enablers and professionals – will probably all have ideas about what useful vocabulary to include. But you should be at the heart of such decisions.

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  • Hi-tech vocabulary application programs are improving all the time. Some of the companies onour Supplier page提供广泛的词汇。您还应该检查哪些应用程序可用于智能手机和平板电脑。

SYMBOLS

符号在日常生活中被广泛用作一种视觉语言。他们快速有效地传达信息。很好的例子是道路标志,衣服上的护理符号或机场的指示符号。任何人都可以阅读符号,无论其语言或扫盲技能如何。沟通困难的人可能会受益于使用符号来了解别人在说什么,并表达他们想说的话。

符号集

符号are mostly available as collections or sets. There are several symbol sets that have been designed specifically for AAC. A symbol usually has the word or phrase it stands for printed above it, when the focus is on communication. Communication partners need to be able to see the words because they may not know what all the symbols mean. If the focus is on literacy, the symbol is printed above the word as the reader may need to see it to help decode the meaning. People who are learning to read often point to words as they read, so the symbol can be helpful.

英国最常用的符号集是图片通信符号(PCS)™,Widgit符号™,Syndystix™,Blissymbols™和Makaton™。请参阅有关的部分Graphic symbol sets了解更多信息。图形符号系统(例如Minsymbols™和Dynasyms™)与特定的高科技通信辅助设备相关。

Symbol Layouts

使用符号的方式

低技术:communication books and charts are paper-based systems of symbols. The symbols are usually accompanied by text. The book or chart may be accessed by pointing, but other access methods also exist.

  • 传播书provide pages of symbols, usually organised by topic.
  • Communication charts就像通信书籍一样,但符号在单板或工作表上。
  • Communication cardsare pages of symbols usually organised by topic.
  • Visual timetables and other visual supports can help someone understand a sequence of events.
  • 图片交换通信系统(PECS)lets an AAC speaker give a picture to someone else, who then gives them what the picture represents.
  • E-Tran帧使用户可以使用眼睛注视在塑料板上指示单词或符号。
  • Communication passportsare booklets with key information that support a vulnerable person with communication difficulties.
  • 说话的垫子是您可以附加图片的垫子。它们可作为思考的结构化工具。

高科技:符号打开mobile devices可能是通信应用程序的一部分,您也许可以选择一个首选的符号集。应用程序可能具有预先安排的布局和词汇,您可能可以编辑。您可能需要从头开始设计词汇。您可能需要单独购买符号。与专门的沟通援助,你可以选择自己喜欢的符号集一个d to alter the layout. You can use symbols on acomputer访问Internet,支持阅读或生成可以打印,电子邮件或上传的消息。

您可以使用软件制作符号支持的材料。这些程序使您可以创建广泛的资源,例如通信书籍和图表,海报,标签,工作表和时间表。金博宝188电子游艺app网址

交流:印刷3
该桌面发布程序创建了用于打印无障碍材料的符号支持的资源。金博宝188电子游艺app网址它包含完整的widgit符号集。它具有标牌,标签,海报,书籍,传单,抽认卡金博宝188电子游艺app网址,工作表和时间表的模板和资源。
更多信息:www.widgit.com/products/inprint/index.htm

Communicate: Symwriter 2
此符号支持的文字处理器使用widgit符号来显示每个单词键入时的含义。该程序包含完整的widgit符号集。它还提供文本到语音和具有符号支持的拼写检查器。学生可以使用替代访问方法从网格中选择符号来编写。老师可以创建自己的活动。
更多信息:
www.widgit.com/products/symwriter/index.htm

Boardmaker (Plus and Studio)
这些是使用图片通信符号创建视觉材料的设计程序。
更多信息:
www.mayer-johnson.com

矩阵制造商
该设计程序用于创建使用PC,Widgit符号和符号构成的视觉材料。
更多信息:
www.inclusive.co.uk/matrix-maker-p4837

布局应该使找到特定符号变得容易。这通常意味着某人有几个符号的“页面”。某些符号布局按主题进行分组,例如一页上的衣服符号,另一页上的符号。语法的一些布局组符号 - 例如,描述诸如“大”,“肮脏”,“饥饿”或诸如“ go”或“ drive”之类的动作词之类的词。一些符号群体围绕一个主题或情况(保龄球或穿衣服)组织,并分组在同一页面上。

需要组织符号,以便用户可以根据需要看到,触及和携带它们。有些人的符号在轮椅托盘上显示在展示图表上,另一些人则使用一本书,上面的符号在页面上分组。一本书的大小将具有利弊。一本小书很容易随身携带,但符号可能比大型A4文件夹更少。有些人在不同情况下使用不同的书籍。不需要携带的主题委员会对于特定的活动或地点很有用。您可以在特定环境中永久显示它们,例如在沙盘,浴室或超市。

Graphic symbol sets

The most frequently used in the UK are Picture Communication Symbols (PCS)™, Widgit Symbols™, Symbolstix™ and Blissymbols™.

图片通信符号(PCS)™
PC在核心库中有大约5,000个符号,可提供44种不同的语言。对于附加图书馆(例如特定于国家 /地区),符号总数约为12,000。符号是可以用黑白或颜色表示的简单图纸。有些版本是高对比度或较薄的轮廓。
更多信息:http://www.mayer-johnson.com/

Widgit Symbols™
Widgit符号集包含12,000多个符号,并提供17种不同的语言。该集合专门为书面信息设计,因此它包含一些基本的语法符号。
更多信息:http://www.widgit.com/

SymbolStix™
SymbolStix在某些语音输出设备上有超过12,000个符号。这些符号的创建是为了支持一个网站,并为无法阅读文本的人们提供新闻和教育材料。这些符号可通过在线订阅获得。
更多信息:https://www.n2y.com/symbolstix-prime/

Blissymbols™
Originally devised as an international language, Blissymbols were adopted for use by people with complex communication difficulties in the 1970s. The symbols share visual elements that have consistent meanings.
更多信息:http://www.blissymbols.co.uk/

Makaton™
马卡顿symbols are simple black and white pictographic drawings that form part of a multi modal language communication programme, which uses speech, signs and symbols. The symbols are available on ICT systems; in addition, their simple style means that they can also be drawn by hand. There is a symbol match for the 450 sign concepts in the core Makaton vocabulary in addition to more than 11,000 concepts in the resource vocabulary. The symbols have been designed to reflect language themes to encourage and support the development of language structure.
更多信息:https://makaton.org/

选择用于AAC通信的符号集

Symbol sets vary in important ways such as how pictorial, how guessable, how flexible, how consistent and how visually complex. It is important to choose symbols to match the needs of both the individual and the communication environment. Your choice may be influenced by practical issues: is symbol software available to produce materials, or are certain symbols available for a particular AAC system?

  • How pictorial

    Some symbol systems are more pictorial than others. However, abstract concepts such as “through”, “tomorrow” or “want” are difficult to convey with a picture.

  • How guessable

    当符号更容易猜测时,用户可能会通过识别而不是学习找到所需的符号。许多猜测的符号代表对象,而不是抽象的想法,并且可以在不同的符号集中以相似的方式表示。但是,某些符号系统并不容易猜测,需要学习。

  • How flexible

    Sets of highly pictorial symbols are easy to guess, but may be less suitable for referring to all the uses of a word. For example, a symbol for water probably won’t work well to express the messagemy eyes began to water”.

  • 多么一致

    符号系统共享一致的视觉元素可能更容易学习。一致的系统允许用户表达其AAC系统中未包含的内容。他们可以通过以不同方式组合元素来传达新的微妙含义来做到这一点。

  • How visually complex

    具有视觉障碍的人可能会发现具有特定功能(例如黑白,线绘图或高对比度颜色)的符号更容易。

  • 为通信环境选择符号

    Using symbols in an everyday setting is recognised as a very effective element of Total Communication. If a school or centre already uses symbols around the building, ideally the person attending can use the same set for their individual communication system.

  • 选择一个符号以符合个人需求的符号

    符号必须支持一个人需要的单词和类型的范围。这对于具有良好语言技能的人尤其重要 - 他们可能需要众多,非常具体的词汇或抽象单词或语法元素的符号。

符号系统要考虑的要点

The purpose of a communication display is to arrange language in space so individuals can … say what they wish to say as quickly as possible, and can do so with a minimal amount of effort.

The selection of a functional and motivational vocabulary is critical for effective use of an augmentative communication device…..Vocabulary selection is an ongoing process.

Things to consider when using a graphic system

  • 图形符号系统是否包含目前和未来需求所需的所有词汇?
  • 图形系统与英语的关系有什么关系?关键词是仅使用的还是AAC扬声器需要使用更全范围的语法单词?
  • 抽象单词的符号可能存在​​问题,例如。就像,如果是,如果是。
  • A graphic symbol system will be built up slowly, so the user can see and understand how to use the symbols they have access to through utterances being modeled by the communication partner.
  • No recall is needed because the graphic symbol system is present as a reminder all the time.
  • Words must always be present with symbols or pictures on a chat or in a book so any communication partner who can read can have a conversation with the AAC speaker. It is better to have the words above the symbols for communication, but under symbols for literacy.
  • 由于只需要一个可靠的运动才能访问图形符号系统,因此具有非常有限的身体技能的人可以理想地适合那些严重的身体障碍的人。
  • Does the AAC speaker have any vision or visual perceptual difficulties? This may affect your choice of graphic symbol system.
  • 符号系统(例如Blissymbols)比图片(图片通信符号或Widgit扫盲符号)强大得多,但最初可能很难理解和学习。
  • Pictographic systems (e.g.Picture Communication Symbols, Widgit Literacy Symbols) require more vocabulary to allow the user to say what they want, whereas a symbolic language like Bliss allows the user to create new words without having to increase the size of their charts or books beyond a manageable size.
  • 图形符号系统不会破坏或需要电池,但会丢失!因此,保持备份(纸和计算机)很重要。
  • 沟通书和/或图表需要与AAC扬声器一起随身携带。

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