- Often, we choose items because they have multisensory properties, such as scented soap to signify washing or a pair of riding gloves that smell of the horse to signify riding. An object may have a link to an activity, like a piece of seat belt/buckle to signify a trip in the car.
- The object of reference must be relevant to the individual – two different people may have different objects of reference for the same toy or activity.
- Avoid objects made of a material the person dislikes.
- A child can build up a mental picture of an object of reference if they can handle it.
- 您可以使用对象的微型版本，但是请注意，与与之交流的人相比，这种选择可能对您的利益更大。如果他们有视力障碍，那么玩具汽车几乎没有类似于上车的经历 - 他们看不到玩具车是真正的汽车的小版本。它感觉不像一个，听起来像一个，闻起来像一个，也不像一个人产生骑行的感觉。
Different kinds of VOCAs
Some VOCAs use paper or plastic sheets that have sets of words or symbols that represent recorded words or messages. These sets of words or symbols are static – they do not change. Other VOCAs display words or symbols on a computer-like screen. These displays are dynamic – they change according to what the AAC speaker selects. For example, if they select the “food” symbol, the display may change to a set of symbols of different things to eat.
Selecting a VOCA
接触your local or regional AAC assessment service to find out more about using a VOCA. The service should be able to show you a range of equipment to try out as part of the assessment. Some centres lend equipment for up to three months to try out. They may charge a courier fee for this. Suppliers of communication aid equipment will often lend equipment as well.
这是一些东西考虑when choosing the most suitable VOCA for an AAC speaker:
- Will the AAC speaker walk and hold the device, or should it be mounted on their wheelchair?
A very basic device with a switch that speaks a recorded message when pressed. You can record a new message over the old; for example, Mum can record a message for the child to take to school, and they can bring home a message recorded by a teacher.
These devices help an AAC user to participate. You can also use them to label items around the house or classroom, provide a talking lunch menu or introduce the user to speech output.
A message sequencer allows the user to have a series of messages. Each time they press the switch, the device speaks the next message in the sequence.
Some devices, such as the one shown here, enable messages to be spoken in random order.
Some overlay devices have several levels with different messages on each so they can be used in different situations with no need to re-record. The speaker may want to use different levels – for example for work, respite, going out, going to the pub, or shopping. Different levels are also useful when other people may use the device. You make a separate overlay for each level.
Some devices allow the AAC speaker to change levels, but it may be difficult for some to manage this.
您可以设置设备在很多不同的方式。For example, you could choose between one and 72 keys per page, or you could link pages together in simple or multi-branching ways. You could also programme the device to automatically open or close a page when the AAC speaker selects a particular vocabulary item.
On the dynamic screen devices illustrated below, the user can change which page to display. A page may contain any combination of symbols, pictures, words and phrases. These devices are equally suitable for someone who is highly literate and someone who doesn’t have reading and spelling skills. Some devices offer additional features such as SMS, playing music, viewing photographs, Skype, internet access and email.
Dynamic display devices cost several thousand pounds. They run on internal batteries that need to be charged overnight, every night, so they have enough power to be used for the whole of the next day.
Before purchasing any equipment it is important to assess an AAC speaker’s skills and needs carefully. But an assessment is essential if they will use equipment that is more complex than digitised VOCAs with paper displays.
We speak or write words, but we can also express words by gesturing or signing. British Sign Language, for example, is widely used by deaf communities in the UK. People who cannot speak may use signing to express their thoughts. We can also use signing as a visual prop to help someone who has difficulty understanding what is said to them. Signing, like speaking, needs no equipment – it is a very spontaneous, portable and reliable form of communication. The main difficulty with signing and gesture systems is that you need to know the system to understand what the signer is saying.
Signing systems currently used in the UK
CHOOSING A VOCABULARY
When you speak, your words represent symbols for what you mean. For instance, if you say“dog透明，您的意思是吠叫的动物，吠叫，有四个腿和尾巴。
Imagine that from now on you can talk as much as you like, but you can only use the same 100 words. To communicate effectively those 100 words must enable you to talk with the widest range of people, about the widest range of topics – both now and in the future. It is difficult to think which words you are most likely to need – but if you were designing an AAC system for someone who cannot talk, you would have to consider such things.
And you want it to be灵活的，例如以帮助您的话：
Who chooses the vocabulary?
If you are the AAC speaker, you should have some input in choosing your vocabulary. People who know you well – your family, enablers and professionals – will probably all have ideas about what useful vocabulary to include. But you should be at the heart of such decisions.
Producing Symbol Supported Materials
Communicate: Symwriter 2
Boardmaker (Plus and Studio)
布局应该使找到特定符号变得容易。这通常意味着某人有几个符号的“页面”。某些符号布局按主题进行分组，例如一页上的衣服符号，另一页上的符号。语法的一些布局组符号 - 例如，描述诸如“大”，“肮脏”，“饥饿”或诸如“ go”或“ drive”之类的动作词之类的词。一些符号群体围绕一个主题或情况（保龄球或穿衣服）组织，并分组在同一页面上。
Graphic symbol sets
The most frequently used in the UK are Picture Communication Symbols (PCS)™, Widgit Symbols™, Symbolstix™ and Blissymbols™.
Originally devised as an international language, Blissymbols were adopted for use by people with complex communication difficulties in the 1970s. The symbols share visual elements that have consistent meanings.
马卡顿symbols are simple black and white pictographic drawings that form part of a multi modal language communication programme, which uses speech, signs and symbols. The symbols are available on ICT systems; in addition, their simple style means that they can also be drawn by hand. There is a symbol match for the 450 sign concepts in the core Makaton vocabulary in addition to more than 11,000 concepts in the resource vocabulary. The symbols have been designed to reflect language themes to encourage and support the development of language structure.
Symbol sets vary in important ways such as how pictorial, how guessable, how flexible, how consistent and how visually complex. It is important to choose symbols to match the needs of both the individual and the communication environment. Your choice may be influenced by practical issues: is symbol software available to produce materials, or are certain symbols available for a particular AAC system?
The purpose of a communication display is to arrange language in space so individuals can … say what they wish to say as quickly as possible, and can do so with a minimal amount of effort.
The selection of a functional and motivational vocabulary is critical for effective use of an augmentative communication device…..Vocabulary selection is an ongoing process.